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» Foot pathologies

The different pathologies of the foot


The foot is subject to daily stress and is prone to the appearance of pathologies of varying degrees of severity. Poor body posture or the use of unsuitable footwear are sometimes enough to cause significant dysfunction. Hallux valgus, deformed toes, or metatarsalgia are some of the common pathologies. Often the cause of pain, it is then recommended to consult a health professional.


The foot: general definition

The foot is the terminal part of the lower limb, which also includes the thigh and the leg. It is composed of about a hundred muscles, tendons and ligaments, organized around the heel and toes. More than twenty-six bones and thirty-three joints participate in its proper functioning.


The main function of the foot is to ensure that the body is able to move and remain upright.


Toe deformities

Toe deformities affect the forefoot. These pathologies are caused by an abnormality of the foot bones, a disease or a bad body posture. Toe deformities are varied: claw toe, hammer toe, mallet toe, etc.


Hallux valgus

Hallux valgus is an outward deviation of the big toe. Also known as a bunion, this foot deformity causes pain when the bunion rubs against the shoe.


This condition is common. The causes of hallux valgus are usually hereditary. However, it happens that a bunion appears with osteoarthritis or following a traumatism. If the deformity is too great, surgical treatment of the foot may be recommended.


Flat and hollow foot

These two pathologies are caused by a deformation of the arch of the foot. The flat foot is defined by an arch of the foot that is too low or even absent. It results in an internal tilting of the foot. Conversely, the hollow foot is a too important pronunciation of the arch of the foot. This pathology affects the foot and the ankle, causing instability when walking. In case of flat or hollow foot, it is recommended to wear orthopedic insoles inside the shoes.


Diabetic foot

The diabetic foot is a foot pathology suffered by diabetic patients. It is caused by an excessive presence of glucose in the blood. Diabetic foot is characterized by a loss of sensitivity in the feet, called peripheral neuropathy. If left untreated, this condition can eventually lead to ulceration or destruction of the tissue.


Rheumatoid foot

Rheumatoid foot is the result of rheumatoid arthritis. This chronic inflammatory disease affects all the joints in the body, especially the foot and ankle.


In order to alleviate pain, Lisfranc surgery is usually performed on patients with rheumatoid foot. Also called Lisfranc arthrodesis, this medical-surgical procedure consists in welding one or more joints together.


Neurological foot drop

Neurological foot drop is the result of a neurological, anatomical or muscular problem. These dysfunctions affect the muscles, which are then unable to lift the forefoot. As a result, the forefoot remains oriented towards the ground.



Metatarsalgia is a pain or inflammation of the plantar region, usually located under the forefoot. Metatarsalgia is often caused by an incorrect distribution of body weight. Walking or standing for a long time causes pain. In the long term, other deformities such as bunion, sunken foot or Morton's Neuroma can also cause metatarsalgia.


Calcaneal spur

Calcaneal spur is a sharp bony growth that affects the back of the foot. It is the consequence of repeated microtrauma under the heel caused by intensive sports practice.


Root canal syndromes

Canal syndromes of the foot are rare conditions. They compress the tibial nerve and cause pain in the ankle, foot or toes. Root canal syndromes can be relieved with corticosteroid injections or by wearing orthopedic inserts. In the most severe cases, foot surgery is necessary.

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